These films are made by some of the great filmmakers of South Asia.
Garam Hawa (1974)
The Blood Of Hussain
Khamosh Pani (2003)
The Colour Of Paradise (1999)
The White Balloon (1995)
The Stoning Of Soraya (2008)
1. Storytelling Techniques: In Media Res (Latin: In the midst of things)
This is the most potent and widely used convention that defies traditional storytelling. Here, you do not start at the beginning but open the story somewhere in the middle. It helps you by capturing immediate attention of the audience as it starts when the action is at its peak. After that you can slow down to tell your back story and they will still stick by it. But if you start slowly with the back story at first, their reaction might not be the same. For instance, in the film Usual Suspects, we start with the interrogation after the crime, which sucks us into the story and then it flashes back to the starting point.
2. Storytelling Techniques: Red Herring
One of the best ways to make a story interesting is to mislead the audience for a while, only to reveal the truth later on in order to amuse, surprise and relieve them. A red herring is basically an element that makes the audience develop a false idea regarding the story. For instance, when you are telling your brand story, you can lead people to believe how something was going to fail and it all looked so gloomy till there was a twist and it was hunky-dory again.
3. Storytelling Techniques: McGuffin
It is a traditional element in thrillers where the plot revolves around one major object (such as the ring in The Lord of the Rings). Even when you talk of your brand, you can weave the story around your most important innovation or offering and develop other narratives around it. This way, people will also get to know what you specialize in and educate them about the important features of your primary offering. It is also the easiest to pull off as you know exactly what to focus on and everything else you say must be directed towards the McGuffin.
4. Storytelling Techniques: Foreshadowing
It is an ominous technique that hints at the future to come. It does not clearly state what will happen but offers a vague idea to keep people interested. This is a good way to keep the options open and introduce a plot twist and catching the audience off guard, later on. For instance, in Game of Thrones they keep saying that the “Winter Is Coming” but there are multiple implications of the same. We will never know the full extent of it until it actually happens but nevertheless we are hooked and always waiting for the next episode.
5. Storytelling Techniques: Hyperlinking
Many highly acclaimed modern films such as Pulp Fiction, Amores Perros, Magnolia and Crash have employed this technique of telling multiple interconnected stories. You can also try this out to infuse novelty in your own story and deliver the variety of multiple stories in one. For instance, if there are four founders of a company, you can start with their respective back stories, till fate brings them together to build the said company. Many “real moment” ads which look like user generated content are featured these days by brands bringing together many stories/moments all connected by a single product. This father’s day advert by Oral B is an example.
1) Watch Movies (but do it the right way)
This one is a no-brainer, right? You wanna be a director, you have to watch movies. If this is you, then you can always deflect criticism from angry relatives, “You spend too much on the TV!” “Leave me alone, I’m studying!”
Yes, indeed watching movies is a great way to study this art form. But there are different ways you can watch a movie, and these that follow are all great exercises for future filmmakers:
One of my favorite ways to watch a movie is with the sound off. This is the perfect technique if you want to observe how stories are told visually, and how the camera behaves to provoke this or that. I think a natural born cinematographer or camera operator, may be able to effortlessly concentrate on picture and tune out the audio. But for the rest of us (and the vast majority of people), the audio actually distracts us from the camerawork. For one thing, the character who’s speaking always draws the viewer’s attention. But what about the other characters, or the elaborate mise-en-scène on the background? Shouldn’t we also be observing what’s happening back there? This film-viewing approach will make you aware of every camera setup, including angles, shot sizes, and movements. It’s more fun than it sounds.
Similarly, you can watch a movie with the picture off, or with your eyes closed so that you see how stories are told auditorily (I think that’s a word). You’d be surprised at how much information is on the soundtrack (in addition to dialogue). With your eyes closed, every little sound bite, from footsteps to raindrops, will be magnified and you will infer meaning from the simplest things.
What both of these approaches do to your filmmaking apprenticeship is that you deconstruct the movie by paying attention to the countless little elements that come together to make the movie what it is. Give them a try!
2) Read Screenplays
The director’s most basic task is to translate the words of the script into moving pictures. Sometimes, especially in film school, you may direct your own screenplay, your own creation. However, the reality of the business is that the division of labor tends to assign you to a specific position: the writer writes, the producer produces, and the director directs. You can always break this paradigm later, but as you start out, it’s safe to assume that more often than not you will be tasked with directing somebody else’s script. And that means diving into a story that you are not familiar with. The good news is that usually it will be a project you believe in, in a format or genre that you are fond of.
Reading scripts is a good exercise because you have to visualize in your head how those scenes would unfold. Do you shoot Johnny strutting down the bar in a close-up or in a wide shot? This is basic camera positioning that you will have to think about regardless of the size of your production or the camera you use.
But you know what, even before you get that far, first you have to get accustomed to the language of screenwriting. It is unlike anything most people read. Novels, plays, newspapers, instruction manuals, forget about it! I’m not talking about format (which is also in a class by itself too), I’m talking about writing style. A screenplay is a screenplay, and every writer has a different style. Plus, from assistants to producers, everyone in the biz has to read ’em. You might as well join them.
3) Learn Acting and the Actor’s Language
One of the most daunting parts of film directing is directing actors. I know of a handful of people among my circle of friends who thought they really wanted be film directors, until they had their chance at directing… and they hated it. There are different reasons for this reaction, but a common one is having to “deal with actors” as they would put it. The problem sometimes is not the actors themselves, but the fact that some directors just love creating the image more than they like “dealing with actors.” And that’s totally fine. There’s a position called Director of Photography that is often where those troubled souls find solace.
But if actors don’t intimidate you… or if you are curious enough to give it a try and tread the directing waters, then you are gonna have to be able to communicate with actors. And trust me, they operate in a different wavelength. If you have ever directed anything and being disappointed at the interaction you had with your actors, you may be inclined to call them “finicky” or “snobbish.” I hate to break it to you, but the problem in that equation was probably you, the director. Sure there are actors who you may not get a long with, but in my experience these are the exceptions, not the rule.
So in order to avoid bad experience with your talent, I would suggest you learn acting and the vernacular used by actors. For one thing, did you know that there are different acting methods? Can you name at least two of them and list their key differences? You see, you may think that these different techniques don’t pertain to you, the director, but it totally does. Though some actors can just “push their own buttons” most of the time, occasionally you may have to do if for them. And a Method Actor may respond differently from some who uses the Practical Aesthetics.
4) Learn How to Interact with People
You may think this one is a no-brainer, but because it feels so obvious many people neglect this notion. I hope you will take this item in the agenda seriously and give it as much thought as it deserves.
I often say that a film director has to be a tyrant and a diplomat. What I mean is this: at times, the director has to be an arrogant boss demanding the world in a silver platter from his crew, but at other times he has to be friendly and courteous and take his time to talk, joke, and mingle. Nonetheless stress levels invariably fluctuate, and directors can’t always play the nice guy, which is why it’s important to show your smiley face and connect to the crew early on any production before stress levels skyrocket.
In this sense, a director has the role of a manager (forget art for a tiny second). You’re the captain of the ship, the leader of the crew. You oversee many departments made up of many professionals. Some have egos, some are outspoken, some are clumsy, some are simply a pain in the butt. It’s part of your job to bring everyone together with the same purpose. If you notice that your cameraman has a problem with your DP, then you may have to pull them both a side and have a heart-to-heart with them, find out what’s wrong and if you can help them or fire them. (I kid you not, it happens.) And if you don’t have the time to talk to them individually, but you’re the one to notice the conflict, you have to let your producer or assistant director know so they can try to resolve it for you.
One book I recommend to develop these interpersonal skills is the famous How to Win Friends & Influence People by Dale Carnegie. This book has been in print for over 70 years! It was first recommended to me by Tom Blomquist, a producer/director/writer triple-threat who was my professor at California State University, Long Beach. I bought the book and devoured it. It’s remarkable.
In my opinion, the book has a Machiavellian title that makes it sound like you’re gonna learn the art of manipulation, but in fact, the lessons are not as dark. The book is a collection of essays brimming with techniques and tips that will help you improve communication, avoid conflict, and become a great leader. If everyone in Hollywood read this book and implemented its suggestions, the industry would be a much much better place.
Note: you can go to Wikipedia for a summary of the techniques the book talks about. The techniques are not a secret. Anyone can tell them to you because they are common sense. But it’s the book’s analysis and examples that make it a masterpiece. Read. The. Book.
5) Become A Master Storyteller and Write Screenplays
6) Keep Up With the Trades
This one is more important than most would think. I hate to admit, but directing is becoming increasingly more business-centric. Nowadays, talent alone is not enough. You have to know how Hollywood functions from a business stance so you can improve your chances of success. Reading trade publications is the best way to accomplish this.
Plus, as someone hoping to have their big break soon, you can find out about enticing opportunities or competitions that will give you a head start if you are good enough to win. For example, The Black List (not to be confused with the TV show by NBC) is a great service that has gained prominence recently. The Black List offers script evaluations for a fee. If you earn a good score, then your logline will be shared with Hollywood honchos in a newsletter. For Directors, ABC offers a directing program every two years, where you will be mentored to direct TV shows for a year. These are just two opportunities that can advance your career that I learned about from reading the trades. Like every thing else in the business, they are a competition. You have to be good for a decent chance.
7) Start Building Your Portfolio Today
A portfolio is different from a resume. A portfolio is a collection of your artistic works (short films, photographs, music, short stories), so you can showcase your skills to prospective collaborators, producers, financiers.
Similarly to Become A Master Storyteller and Write Screenplays above, you have to find ways to convince others that you are good at what you do. Having screenplays to show is one way, but directors really have to focus on showing their films. You have to preserve everything you shoot, and you should shoot as often as you can.
Don’t be embarrassed by the movies you did as a kid or a teen. Even if they are laughable, some of them can be useful to showcase a specific skill like editing, camerawork, or special effects. Be judicious and use common sense.
The ladder to directing glory is about you proving to someone else that you are good enough for a better chance. If you use that chance to do something great, you will be worthy of a bigger chance, and so on. As you build your portfolio, your chances and budget will become greater.
The techniques that video editors use to shape their content reveal a lot about how people create meaning in the world. Editors have a deep understanding of how people think, feel, remember and learn, and we use this knowledge to build powerful, moving stories and experiences. The best editing decisions come from empathy — both for the people who exist virtually on the screen and for the audience watching them.
Choose the best camera angles for each moment. As you look at your footage, your goal is to balance speaker intent with the expectations of the web audience. Think about where the audience would want to be looking at different points during the talk if they were in the room — that will help you select the best camera angle to reconstruct each moment. By thinking about that, you are also choosing angles that help the speaker better express his or her story.
Use more close-ups and medium shots than wide shots. It’s important to cut between different camera angles so that the audience understands the space where the TED Talk took place. But once the talk is contextualized, close-ups and medium shots hold the most meaning for the audience. It’s engaging to watch speakers’ facial expressions and body language as they speak and, with a closer view, you can just see it better.
Watch a speaker’s body language and pay attention to the way they talk. Language is embodied. A speakers’ thoughts, words and breath are all revealed through their body language. Meanwhile, each speaker has a unique rhythm and cadence to their voice. If you pay attention to these things, it will provide a natural rhythm for your editing and it will all feel intuitive for the audience, too.
Cut on action. One way to make the edit between two shots seem invisible is by cutting on a gesture. The viewer watches the beginning of a motion that begins in one shot and follows it as it crosses the edit and finishes in the next shot. The completion of the gesture masks the edit. Here is an example of a cut made on the subtle gesture made as the speaker completes his thought and begins a new one.
Cut on words. The sound of a word, especially if it contains a hard consonant, can make an edit feel less obvious. When the word is one that is relevant to the main point of the speaker’s talk, the edit can also highlight that word and make it more memorable. Let’s listen to example of an edit cut on a word.
Keep things moving. The web audience has a short attention span. Framing a speaker’s words with multiple camera angles is more dynamic and interesting than holding on one camera angle for a long period of time.
Break up graphics. At TED, the slides that speakers use often stay on-screen for quite a while. We try to break the slide up into sections, so that only the relevant parts of the slide are revealed in time with the speaker’s words. This may or may not help in your own editing, but the point is: be methodical with directing attention.
Edit out mistakes. At TED, we do edit out both technical errors and speaker errors. We often mask these edits by cutting on action. Let’s take a look at an example of how this is done. First you will hear two sentences that are hooked together by an “um,” something many speakers do without realizing it.
Think about who’s speaking and who’s listening. One challenge we sometimes get in the TED editing room: interviews. To explain the best approach to editing one, let’s watch a short excerpt from an interview Chris Anderson did with Bill Gates. In this example, only one camera angle is used.
Take some space from your edit. After spending some time with the same edit, it’s easy to become desensitized to the material. So it’s important to step away. Taking a break from an edit and returning with fresh eyes can help you maintain your sense of audience and help you do your best work.